technology is the knowledge of techniques and processes mixed with skills and methods that enables human to apply this knowledge, technology had started by the pre-historic man when he used a very simple tools to secure his living from food and protection, then technology uses evolved from just a surviving tool to become the backbone of living that interfered in every single detail of human daily life, from the Toothpick to the space-traveling that is like a dream coming true as their rich tourists had made a space trip and its expected that it will be common and affordable trip in the upcoming years, so let’s talk about the most exciting technology breakthroughs in 2019.
2019 is going to witness the releasing of the fifth generation of cellular mobile communication (5G) that featured with reduced latency, energy saving, cost reduction, higher system capacity, and massive device connectivity, and it’s the natural evolution of the 4G Technology that had been released on 2009 in Sweden and that was a great breakthrough in the history of mobile internet that the internet speed could reach 100 megabytes per second for high mobility mobile communication, so let’s get back to 5G technology that its speed is expected to reach 2500 MB (Megabyte) per second as peck performance, 5G mobile devices had seen a great improvement in technicality as it depend on a cell communicate by radio waves with a local antenna array and automated transceiver in the cell with low power consumption rate the antenna is connected with the telephone network through optical fiber cables or wireless backhaul connection, the devices that will equip the 5G technology is going to have 4G LTE capability as the 5G access is not available everywhere till now, the 5G is going to be used in the autonomous vehicles to support it with data about the surrounding environment in real time and nearby vehicles that could exchange their locations and intentions, the roadway is also able to deliver traffic conditions immediately ahead, which will ease the task of driving, also 5G technology is going to be compatible for laptops computers to enhance its Internet communication.
Virtual Reality (VR):
Virtual reality (VR) technology had started in the early 1950th as Morton Heling wrote about the “theater experience”, and built a prototype of Sensorama vision dubbed in 1962, this device displays engaged multiple scenes, then he developed the “Telesphere Mask”, the year 1968 had seen the releasing of the first head mounting display (HMD) system for simulation applications by Douglas Engelbart and other scientists, the 70th had seen a great leap in the virtual reality technology by interfering in many fields like medical, military and even space science as David Em was the first one to produce navigable virtual worlds in NASA laboratory, in 1979 Eric Howlett developed the Extra Perspective (LEEP) optical system which make the virtual reality helmets available today, 1991 had seen the invention of the first cubic impressive room allowing people to see their own bodies in relation to each other’s in the room, between the years 1982 and 1992 Nicole Stenger created the first real time interactive impressive movie that viewed by using a dataglove and a high resolution googles, then the new millennium comes with new update in VR technology, by the year 2001 the first pc based on cubic room had been invented, in the year 2007 google had released the street panoramic view by using 3D stereoscopic mode, 2013 had seen the start of using the virtual reality technology in smart phones by using a headset that used in virtual and augmentation of reality, the Oculus VR project had seen the light Valve Corporation, in the year 2014 Facebook had bought the Oculus VR for 2 Million dollar, and also Sony had announced the launch of the PlayStation VR project, In the year 2015 Google had announced the launch of cardboard a do-it-yourself stereoscopic viewer for smartphones, 2016 had seen a great leap in the VR technology development by many companies specially HTC which had shipped the Vive Steam VR headset as the major commercial release in this year, Sony had continued the development of the wireless headset and evolved it and released the Vive for PlayStation VR. 2019 is going to see a great leap in VR technology as Sony is working to release 3D Rubber Motion Controller for PlayStation VR, SOMNIACS company is working on Somniacs Birdly VR Flying Simulator, but this will not be the last update in the VR technology.
Artificial intelligence (AI) technology
Artificial intelligence concept had started to be known from the year 1940 by the invention of the programmable digital computer, the machine based on abstract essence of mathematical reasoning, Dartmouth college had founded the AI research field in the year 1956, by the year 1973 the artificial inelegance had faced a new challenge from the USA and the British governments as they stopped the funding undirected research into artificial intelligence, the investors started to take the role of the governments in the funding this research but by the 80th they started to withdraw from this business because of the absence of the needed computer power (hardware), but this all had changed by the beginning of the 21 century as that the machine learning was successfully solved a lot of academic and industrial problems, the AI development in the new millennium started with the creation of the interactive toys (smart toys) in the year 2000, in the year 2004 Nasa had navigated the surface of Mars with autonomously robotic exploration rovers, in 2005 Honda released a humanoid robot that is able to walk as fast as humans and he worked as a food servant in restaurant, but the year 2005 had seen a new thinking in the AI technology by the initiation of the blue brain project that aimed to identify the structure of human brain and detect its function in disease and health, between years 2010 and 2014 the humans are being able to communicate and even speak with robots as in 2011 Apple had launched the Siri project and in year 2012 google had launched Google Now, and then the turn comes on Microsoft that released the smartphone apps the uses the natural language to answer the received questions, make recommendations and even perform actions, Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology is going to see a great leap in 2019 as this year will see the release of:
1- Automated CCTV security cameras:
that featured by:
It could predict potential vulnerabilities, threats and menace.
Tracking missing children.
Tracking theft vehicles.
Identifying criminals and suspected people between the large crowd.
2-general adversarial networks (GANs):
A new concept that will be released in 2019 that will make your AI smarter as an example it could be able to distinguish between the real image or a realistic image that is created by AI technology.
Chatbot that is also known as Smartbot, Talkbot, chatterbot, IM Bot, interactive agent, conventional interface and artificial conversational entity, the Chatbot concept is an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods, this technology had started in the early 20th century in the year 1960, but in the middle of the century that this technology had turned from simple conversions to powerful promotional tools for media brands and e-commerce businesses, 80% of companies are expected to be using the Chatbot by the year 2020.
3D printing is a number of various computer controlled processes to create a three-dimension object is made by joining and solidifying the material, 3D printing had started to enter the production industry in the early 80th particularly in 1981 when the Japanese scientist Hideo Kodama has invented two methods for fabricating three dimensional plastic models with photo hardening method, the use of 3D printing in production started with functional or aesthetical prototypes then it turned to be additive manufacturing that it can be used in manufacturing a very complex shape or geometry that is pre designed by 3D model or a CAD file, 2019 is going to see a leap in 3D printing specially in the metal 3D printing which depend on digital model that uses layer by layer material build-up approach which gives the metal a full density and high precision, the metal 3D printing technology is going to be used in manufacturing aerospace, oil & gas, automobile and marine applications, 3D printing is going to use new materials and enter the phase of mass production with high technology machines, 3D printing will see new types in 2019 by these types:
Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM): is also known as Fused Filament Fabrication which is the most commonly available and cheapest type of 3D printing.
stereolithographic (SLA): which is known as the world first 3D printing technology as its history returns to the year 1986, stereolithographic printing is Featured by using mirrors but it also had a big disadvantage that it takes too long to trace the cross-section of an object when compared to DLP.
Digital Light Processing (DLP): this type of 3D printing uses a digital light projector to flash one image for each layer at once or images of multiple flashes for larger parts, the output of this type of 3D printing is a digital image composed of square pixels resulting from rectangular blocks called Voxels.
Selective laser sintering (SLS): its creating objects by using Powder Bed Fusion technology and polymer powder, this type of 3D printing is going to be commonly used due to its low price and this type is featured by using a CO2 laser beam in scanning the object surface.
Material Jetting (MJ): this type of 3D printing has the same concept of normal inkjet printers but the difference in this printing type is that it builds multiple layers of ink upon each other until it turns to solid part, Material Jetting featured by offering objects made from multi-material printing and with full-color.
Drop On Demand (DOD): this type of 3D printing featured by using a pair of ink Jets, one looks like a wax material and the other used for dissolvable support material, DOD printing featured by using a fly-cutter that skims the build area after the creation of each layer to ensure the commencing of this layer, this type of printing is used in casting the lost wax and suitable for other mold making applications.
Sand binder jetting: mainly this type of 3D printing depends on mixing the PMMA powder with binding liquid as an agent to produce parts colors are added to the mixture through another nozzle, binder jetting useful in production of sand cast molds and cores as they are generally made of artificial sand or (silica), this type of 3D printing is featured with its low cost and quite easily integrated into existing manufacturing of foundry process without disruption.
Metal binder jetting: this type of 3D printing is used in the fabrication of metal objects, as the metal powder is bond together using a polyer binding agent, metal binder jetting is featured by producing complex geometries objects beyond conventional manufacturing techniques, this process done on main steps of infiltration process then adding bronze is the object then we go for the sintering process, the output of this printing type had an issue of non-uniform shrinkage that is solved in the design stage.
Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS): this type of 3D printing is like SLS type but the difference in that it is applied on metal objects, laser is used in fusing the metal powder at a point reaching molecular level, DMLS printing process needs a structural support as the output object is Vulnerable to distortion and wrapping due to residual stress.
Electron Beam Melting (EBM): high energy Electron beam is used in the metal fusion; EBM printing is featured with superior building speed upon any other 3D printing types because of its high energy density.
Blockchain or blockchain is a growing list of records called blocks using cryptography, blockchains are resistance to modification of the data that was first described in the year 1991 but it was actually created as public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency (bitcoin) by Satoshi Nakamoto in the year 2008, it is managed by peer to peer network collectivity adhering to a protocol for internal code communication and validating new blocks once recorded, blockchains has many types:
Public blockchains have absolutely no access restrictions, its useful as that anyone has a connection to the internet could send transactions as validator, bitcoins and Ethereum are the most known public blockchains Applications.
Private blockchains feathered with high privacy as there is no one could join the network until he had been invited by the network administrations, and even the participant and validator access is restricted, this type of blockchains is the most appropriate for companies that are interested in Blockchain technology because of the high control level, its main implement is in accounting and record keeping producer’s business.
Consortium blockchains are semi-decentralized as its controlling lies between the hands of many companies might control one node in the network and not just a single organization that controls the network.
Blockchains technology will see a great leap in 2019 as these types will rise:
Blockchain will work as a service (BaaS):
BaaS is a cloud-based service that allows customers to build their own Blockchain powered products and it could be including applications, smart contracts, and other Blockchain features without the need to set up or build Blockchain based infrastructure.
Hybrid Blockchain works by providing the best features and functionality of both private and public blockchains, hybrid Blockchain isn’t widely used but it is considered to be the most appropriate for banks.
Federated Blockchain is the natural evolution of the normal Blockchain, it looks like the private Blockchain but has more customizable outlook, federated blockchains mainly used in financial services.
Ricardian contracts are the start of the dependence on legal contracts that cryptographically signed and verified, Ricardian contracts provide unique solutions so that they could be understood without mediator or service for both human and computers.
Interoperability between Blockchains:
Interoperability Blockchains aims to improve information across several networks or other Blockchains networks, the cross chain services improve the daily use of Blockchains, 2019 will see an improvement in the interoperability Blockchains technology, the main applications for Interoperability Blockchains are BlockNet, Aion, WanChain, and others.
Stable coins are the side product of the cryptocurrencies, that is affected by the market condition and the stability maintained in all time, most of the stable coins are fiat-chained but they are also backed by commodity stable coins, the main applications for stable coins are everyday currency transaction and P2P payments.
Security tokens had replaced the ICOs because it is more secure and protects the investor’s rights redefines the whole investment process, by the current year 2019 investors will tend to use security tokens (STO) than (ICO).
Financial relegation is a type of relegation or supervision, which targets financial institutions with certain requirements, guidelines and restrictions that aims to maintain integrity of the financial system, this system could be handled by government or non-government organization, financial relegation had initiated by the Dutch authorities in the early modern period on the year 1610 as short selling which means that the buyer doesn’t own the asset but he borrows it from the seller and returns it back after short time with profit, then the Financial relegation took its development way until it took the form of banks in our days, the 2010 financial crisis had affected the relegation in a positive way as regulators put a fourth substantial number of new strengthened regulations and expanded requirements, 2018 had seen a great focus on legislative agenda towards protecting the consumers and investors and encouraging financial technology innovation, 2019 is going to see big leap in the financial relegation field as Asian investors will continue their 2018 financial vision to make the trajectory of embedding global post-crisis reforms, and make the Asia-pacific outlook the trends navigating guide across the region, in Europe 2019 is expected to be the year of continuity of regulatory terms, As the first half of the year will be finalizing the legislative initiatives to complete the banking Union, strengthen the EMU, and Capital markets Union.
largest technology construction projects in 2019
London Crossrail is the world first continues growing underground system that it extends the railway system with 73 miles (117 kilometers) that links between Berkshire and Buckinghamshire this line holds the name of Elizabeth Line that will be divided into two lines, this huge project expected to cost 23 million Pound, London Crossrail had the approval to start to work on it on 2008 and it’s excepted to launch in autumn 2019.
Benban Solar Park:
Benban solar park will be the world largest photovoltaic power station than expected to generate 1650 (MVP), its located in Upper Egypt particularly in Aswan, the Benban solar park is part of Egypt’s Nubian sun project that aims to be part of generating 20% renewable power of total Egyptian needed power, this Egyptian national project is expected to start working by the end of 2019.